Assessment Anchor BIO.B.1 Cell Growth and Reproduction
Anchor Descriptor BIO.B.1.1 Describe the three stages of the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division, cytokinesis.
Eligible Content BIO.B.1.1.2 Compare the processes and outcomes of mitotic and meiotic nuclear divisions.
Enhanced Standard 3.1.B.A4, 3.1.B.A5, 3.1.B.B2, 3.1.B.B3, 3.1.B.B5, 3.1.B.C2, 3.1.C.C2
Assessment Anchors & Eligible Content


Essential Learnings

3.1.B.A4

  • Summarize the stages of the cell cycle.
  • Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules.
  • Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
  • Compare and contrast a virus and a cell. Relate the stages of viral cycles to the cell cycle.

3.1.B.A5

  • Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc.)
  • Explain the role of water in cell metabolism.
  • Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell.
  • Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane.

3.1.B.B2

  • Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.
  • Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
  • Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring.

3.1.B.B3

  • Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding.
  • Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code.
  • Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression.
  • Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation.
  • Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.

3.1.B.B5

  • Patterns
  • Describe how Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterms of inheritance.
  • Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles).
  • Constance and change.
  • Explain how the processes of replication, transcription and translation are similar in all organisms. Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.
  • Scale.
  • Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.

3.1.B.C2

  • Describe the theory suggesting that life on Earth arose as a single, primitive prokaryote about 4 billion years ago and that for the next 2 billion years, a huge diversity of single-celled organisms evolved.
  • Analyze how increasingly complex, multicellular organisms evolved once cells with nuclei developed.
  • Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
  • Describe the relationship between environmental changes in the gene pool of a population.

3.1.C.C2

  • Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.


Vocabulary

Asexual reproduction: a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring.Cell cycle: cyclic series of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic cellCell plate: the structure that forms during cytokinesis in plants, separating two daughter cells produced by mitosis.Centromere: specialized constricted region of a chromatid; in cells at prophase and metaphase, sister chromatids are joined in tne vicinity of their centromeres.Chromatid: one of the two identical halves of a duplicated chromosome, the two chromatids that make up a chromosome are referred to as sister chromatids.Chromatin: the complex of DNA, proteins and some RNA that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.Chromosomes: structures in the cell nucleus, composed of chromatin and containing the genes. The chromosomes become visible with amicroscope as distinct structures when the cell divides.Crossing over: the breaking and rejoining of homologous (nonsister) chromatids during early meiotic prophase I, resulting in an exchange of genetic material.Cytokinesis: stage of cell division in which the cytoplasm is divided to form two daughter cells.Diploid: the condition of having two sets of chromosomes per nucleus.Fertilization: fusion of n gametes; results in the formation of a 2n zygote.G1 phase: the first gap phase within the interphase stage of the cell cycle; G1 occurs before DNA synthesis begins.G2 phase: the second gap phase within the interphase stage of the cell cycle; G2 occurs after DNA synthesis and before mitosis.Gamete: a sex cell; in plants and animals, an egg or sperm. In sexual reproduction, the union of gametes results in the formation of a zygote. The chromosome number of a gamete is designated n.Haploid: the condition of having one set of chromosomes per nucleus.Interphase: stage of the cell cycle between successive mitotic divisions; its subdivisions are the G1, S and G2 phases.Karyotype: the chromosomal constitution of an individual. Representations of the karyotype are generally prepared by photographing the chromosomes and arranging the homologous pairs according to size, centromere position and pattern of bands.Meiosis: process in which a 2n cell undergoes two successive nuclear divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II), potentially producing four n nuclei; leads to the formation of gametes in animals and spores in plants.Metaphase: the stage of mitosis, and of meiosis I and II, in which the chromosomes line up on the equatorial plane of the cell. Occurs after prophase and before anaphase.Mitosis: division of the cell nucleus, resulting in two daughter nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. Mitosis consists of four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.Ploidy: relating to the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell. (haploid, diploid, polyploid)Polyploid: possessing more than two sets of chromosomes per nucleus.Prophase: the first stage of mitosis, and meiosis I and II. During prophase the chromosomes become visibile as distinct structures, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and spindle fibers form (Meiotic prophase I is more comples, and includes synapsis of homologous chromosomes and crossing over).S phase: stage in interphase of the cell cycle during which DNA and other chromosomal constituents are synthesized.Sexual reproduction: type of reproduction in which two gametes (usually, but not necessarily, contributed by two different parents) fuse to form a zygote.Spindle fiber: structure consisting mainly of microtubules that provides the framework for chromosome movement during cell division.Synapsis: the process of physical association of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.Telophase: the last stage of mitosis, and of meiosis I and II, when, having reached the poles, chromosomes become decondensed, and a nuclear envelope forms around each group.Zygote: the 2n cell that results from the union of n gametes in sexual reproduction. Species that are not polyploid have haploid gametes and diploid zygotes.


Technology/Web Connections

Adaptations
  • Chunking information
  • Guided/Partial notes
  • Directions explained in detail
  • Additional time for assignments

Extension Activities




Materials/Resources

Assessment

Technology/Web Connections

Sullivan, James. Welcome to Cells Alive! Cells Alive. Quill Graphics. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from website: http://cellsalive.com/
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Flammer, Larry. Mitosis & Meiosis: Doing it on the Table. ENSI. 9/2006. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from website http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/lessons/gen.mm.html
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McGraw Hill. Interactive Crossword Puzzle. 2001. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from website http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072495855/237981/ch02.html
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Grimes, W.J., Warren, D. K. (1997). Meiosis Tutorial. The Biology Project. August 2004. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from website http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/meiosis/main.html.
"How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis." Teachers' Domain. 26 Sep. 2003. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.mitosis/.
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Benjamin, Daniel. Mitosis & Meiosis Online Quiz. September 21, 2000. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from website http://www.cst.cmich.edu/users/benja1dw/bio101/tools/quiz/mitosis.htm

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McKinley, O'Loughlin. Animation: Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis. Retrieved November 18, 2011 from website http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__comparison_of_meiosis_and_mitosis__quiz_1_.html