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A KEYSTONE INFORMATION
Basic Biological Principles - Biological Organization
Basic Biological Principles - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Functions
Basic Biological Principles - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organisms
Bioenergetics - Role of ATP in Biochemical Reactions
Bioenergetics - Roles of Plastids and Mitochondria in Energy Transformations
Bioenergetics - Transformations of Energy in Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Cell Growth and Reproduction - Cell Cycle
Cell Growth and Reproduction - DNA Replication
Cell Growth and Reproduction - DNA, Genes, and Inheritance
Cell Growth and Reproduction - Mitotic and Meiotic Nuclear Division
Chemical Basis For Life - Biological Macromolecules From Monomers
Chemical Basis For Life - Carbon Suited for Biological Macromolecules
Chemical Basis For Life - How Factors Affect Enzyme Function
Chemical Basis For Life - Nutrition For Organisms
Chemical Basis For Life - Properties of Water
Chemical Basis For Life - Role of Enzymes in Biochemical Reaction
Ecology - Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Ecology - Biotic Interactions
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Cell Growth and Reproduction - Cell Cycle
Assessment Anchor BIO.B.1 Cell Growth and Reproduction
Anchor Descriptor BIO.B.1.1 Describe the three stages of the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division, cytokinesis.
Eligible Content BIO.B.1.1.1 Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (i.e., mitosis or meiosis), cytokinesis.
Enhanced Standard 3.1.B.A4, 3.1.B.A5, 3.1.B.B2, 3.1.B.B3, 3.1.B.B5, 3.1.B.C2, 3.1.C.C2
Assessment Anchors & Eligible Content
Summarize the stages of the cell cycle.
Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules.
Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
Compare and contrast a virus and a cell. Relate the stages of viral cycles to the cell cycle.
Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc.)
Explain the role of water in cell metabolism.
Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell.
Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane.
Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.
Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring.
Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding.
Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code.
Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression.
Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation.
Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.
Describe how Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterms of inheritance.
Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles).
Constance and change.
Explain how the processes of replication, transcription and translation are similar in all organisms. Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.
Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.
Describe the theory suggesting that life on Earth arose as a single, primitive prokaryote about 4 billion years ago and that for the next 2 billion years, a huge diversity of single-celled organisms evolved.
Analyze how increasingly complex, multicellular organisms evolved once cells with nuclei developed.
Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
Describe the relationship between environmental changes in the gene pool of a population.
Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.
- the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
- the stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs; during this stage, the cell grows, copies it's DNA, and prepares to divide
- the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in it's nucleus
- the staage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
- a rod shaped cellular structure made of chdensed chromatin; contains DNA, which carries the genetic information that controls inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type
- one of the identical rods of a chromosome
- the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the new cells
- a small, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell
- an organism that provides a source of energy or a suitable environment for a virus or for another organism to live
- an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
- the process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
- the reproductive process that involoves only one parent adnd produces offspring that are identical to the parent
- the reproductive process that involves two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
- a sperm or egg cell
- a female sex cell
- a male sex cell
- Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
- Ribonuclcleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
- RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
- RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain
- a change in a gene or chromosome
- the different forms of a gene
- a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
- an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
- an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
- an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
- an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Technology Web Connections
mitosis (summary of stages), mitosis animation
mieosis interactive video and explanation of stages.
Meiosis and the dividing cell.pptx
Cell Reproduction Vocab.docx
The Biology Project, developed at the University of Arizona. July 2004. Retrieved on October 26, 2011 from website
Animal Cell Meiosis
. Cells Alive. Quill Graphics. Retrieved Septemeber 28, 2011 from website:
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