Assessment Anchor BIO.B.1 Cell Growth and Reproduction

Anchor Descriptor BIO.B.1.1 Describe the three stages of the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division, cytokinesis.
Eligible Content BIO.B.1.1.1 Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (i.e., mitosis or meiosis), cytokinesis.
Enhanced Standard 3.1.B.A4, 3.1.B.A5, 3.1.B.B2, 3.1.B.B3, 3.1.B.B5, 3.1.B.C2, 3.1.C.C2
Assessment Anchors & Eligible Content

Essential Learnings


  • Summarize the stages of the cell cycle.
  • Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules.
  • Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
  • Compare and contrast a virus and a cell. Relate the stages of viral cycles to the cell cycle.


  • Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc.)
  • Explain the role of water in cell metabolism.
  • Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell.
  • Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane.


  • Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.
  • Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
  • Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring.


  • Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding.
  • Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code.
  • Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression.
  • Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation.
  • Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.


  • Patterns
  • Describe how Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterms of inheritance.
  • Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles).
  • Constance and change.
  • Explain how the processes of replication, transcription and translation are similar in all organisms. Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.
  • Scale.
  • Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.


  • Describe the theory suggesting that life on Earth arose as a single, primitive prokaryote about 4 billion years ago and that for the next 2 billion years, a huge diversity of single-celled organisms evolved.
  • Analyze how increasingly complex, multicellular organisms evolved once cells with nuclei developed.
  • Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
  • Describe the relationship between environmental changes in the gene pool of a population.


  • Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.

cell cycle- the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
interphase- the stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs; during this stage, the cell grows, copies it's DNA, and prepares to divide
replication- the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in it's nucleus
mitosis- the staage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
chromosome- a rod shaped cellular structure made of chdensed chromatin; contains DNA, which carries the genetic information that controls inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type
chromatid- one of the identical rods of a chromosome
cytokinesis- the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the new cells
virus- a small, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell
host- an organism that provides a source of energy or a suitable environment for a virus or for another organism to live
parasite- an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
meiosis- the process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
asexual reproduction- the reproductive process that involoves only one parent adnd produces offspring that are identical to the parent
sexual reproduction- the reproductive process that involves two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
gamete- a sperm or egg cell
egg- a female sex cell
sperm- a male sex cell
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
RNA- Ribonuclcleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
messenger RNA- RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
transfer RNA- RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain
mutation- a change in a gene or chromosome
alleles- the different forms of a gene
gene- a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
dominate allele- an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele- an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
phenotype- an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
genotype- an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations

Technology Web Connections mitosis (summary of stages), mitosis animation mieosis interactive video and explanation of stages.


Extension Activities

Materials/ Resources



The Biology Project, developed at the University of Arizona. July 2004. Retrieved on October 26, 2011 from website
Sullivan, James. Animal Cell Meiosis. Cells Alive. Quill Graphics. Retrieved Septemeber 28, 2011 from website: